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Module 9: Diet Guidelines

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“This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein”

Diet Guidelines

Upon completion of this module the reader will be able to:

  • Understand the Weight Controlling in Wrestling

First, it is strongly suggested to review

  1. Barley, O.R., Chapman, D.W &Abbiss R.C. (2019). The current state of weight-cutting in combat sports. Sports, 7 (5), 123; doi:10.3390/sports7050123.
  2. Langan-Evans, C., Reale, R., Sullivan, J. & Martin, D. (2021). Nutritional considerations for female athletes in weight category sports. European Journal of Sport Science, doi: 10.1080/17461391.2021.1936655.

online publication.

Weight Controlling in Wrestling

Wrestling is a combat sport which involves grappling techniques in one-vs-one combat under a specific ruleset of the bout. It is also a weight division sport which means that every competitor should have a specific weight to have the right to participate in their category. To achieve this “weight goal”, most of the wrestlers do the weight making or cutting which includes the whole process of reducing body mass. This process can be either chronic (starting months and weeks before a competitive event) or acute (starting days and hours before a competitive event).

The chronic weight loss process is a more nutrition-based intervention based on energy intake and expenditure controlling the macro- and micronutrient distribution. The main goal of this strategy is the body fat mass decrement, with or without an increment of fat-free mass fact that depends on the chosen weight category or the health situation of the wrestler (injury or age-related development).In order to reduce body weight, it is proposed a body mass loss ranging 0.5-1 kg/week. Recent studies highlighted that 3-3.5g/kg body mass carbohydrate, 2 g/kg body mass protein and ≤1g/kg body mass fat, >30g/ day fiber intakes affected positively the weight making process. If the target is the fat-free mass a carbohydrate and protein intake reduction should be considered. An important parameter is the periodization of carbohydrate intakes due to their role of the best “fuel” in training, especially during periods of higher volume training which require more carbohydrates than during the lower ones. In conclusion, chronic strategies require the cooperation of the coach, the physical performance trainer, the dietitian, and the athlete so as to achieve the weight category that is the best for the athlete’s performance.

Acute weight loss strategies are targeting to make feasible a 5-10% body mass loss with an acceptably small impact on health and performance, individually. These strategies affect body water through lower fluid (≤100ml/kg body mass /day) or sodium (<500mg /day) intakes, or gastrointestinal tract content by reducing the fiber intakes to <10g/day, or glycogen content through its depletion (<50g/ day). A proposed time frame to achieve a body mass loss >5% during a week prior to weigh-in is the following:

  • Low carbohydrate diet (<50g/day) 3-7 days pre
  • Reduce dietary sodium intake (<500mg/day) 120hours pre
  • Reduce fiber intake (<10g/day) 48-96 hours pre
  • Restrict fluid intake 24-36hours pre
  • Begin passive dehydration if required 0-24 hours pre

The duration of every step depends on the training volume and intensity as well as the individual responses.

After weigh-in, it is important to follow the recovery/ refeed phase which includes rehydration, glycogen restoration and the management of gastrointestinal distress. Energy intake must be high to replenish post-acute weight loss in context of individual circumstances. The macronutrient intakes during this phase are proposed to be the following ones:

  • Protein intake should be 1.5-2 g/kg body mass from lean and low-fat sources.
  • Carbohydrate intake >1.2g/kg body mass/hour during reduced recovery periods (<4hours), while 7-10g/kg body mass/ day (>4hours)
  • Fat intake<1 g/kg body mass
  • Fluid intake 600-900ml bolus followed by boluses to account 150% of total body water losses.

In conclusion, every competitor in wrestling should set a reasonable goal of weight class, plan to know the specific health and performance needs, fuel adequately his/ her body all day and season to achieve the best training performance and have a balanced diet which includes foods and beverages that fuel the wrestler.A long-term weight making is healthier and more effective but requires better cooperation between the team members.

 

Bibliography and the additional learning materials

 

In conclusion, every competitor in wrestling should set a reasonable goal of weight class, plan to know the specific health and performance needs, fuel adequately his/ her body all day and season to achieve the best training performance and have a balanced diet which includes foods and beverages that fuel the wrestler.A long-term weight making is healthier and more effective but requires better cooperation between the team members periodization process.

 

  1. Barley, O.R., Chapman, D.W &Abbiss R.C. (2019). The current state of weight-cutting in combat sports. Sports, 7 (5), 123; doi:10.3390/sports7050123.
  2. Langan-Evans, C., Reale, R., Sullivan, J. & Martin, D. (2021). Nutritional considerations for female athletes in weight category sports. European Journal of Sport Science, doi: 10.1080/17461391.2021.1936655.
  3. Reale R. (2108). Acute weight management in combat sports: pre weigh-in weight loss, post weigh-in recovery and competition nutrition strategies. Sports Science Exchange, 29 (183), 1-6.
  4. Reale, R., Burke, M.L. & Slater, G. (2016). Acute weight loss strategies for combat sports and applications to Olympic success. Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 12 (2), 142-151.

systematic review. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 46(2), 168–196. https://doi.org/10.1080/00913847.2018.1445406

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Quiz module 2

Neck injuries

1 / 5

In Free stylestyle, following the landing on the mat, additional pressure is exerted to the  neck

2 / 5

In Greco-Roman style, following the landing on the mat, additional pressure is exerted to the trunk and neck

 

3 / 5

The highest incidence of cervical spine injuries occurred:– in training

4 / 5

The highest incidence of cervical spine injuries occurred  in match competitions

 

5 / 5

The position most frequently associated withcervical spine injury was

 

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Erasmus+

“This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.”